Creek Indians

Native American History Timeline

Thank you again to Linda Alchin, a history author, who published this Native American timeline at 100% of the credit goes to her for gathering the data and publishing the timeline.

  • 15,000 BC Paleo-Indian Era (Stone Age): Hunter gatherer groups inhabit North America
  • 12000 BC Migrants arrive in the United States of America
  • 9000 BC Clovis Culture (named because of artefacts found at Blackwater Draw, Clovis, New Mexico
  • 7500 BC Folsom Culture (named after artefacts found at Folsom, New Mexico
  • 7500 BC Eastern Woodland Culture begins
  • 4000 BC Copper culture begins along the Great Lakes
  • 2000 BC Pecos Culture begins producing rock paintings
  • 1100 BC Anasazi build cliff cities at Mesa Verde, Colorado
  • 1700 BC Mound Builders culture
  • 250 BC Bow and arrow weapon introduced
  • 1000 AD Woodland Culture Period: Adena Culture, Hopewell culture
  • 1000 Mississippian Culture established – Cahokia is the capital
  • 1492 Christopher Columbus discovers America
  • 1500 The Europeans brought diseases such as typhoid, yellow fever, smallpox, measles and influenza to the indigenous population. Their numbers fell from 80 million to less than 1 million in less than 500 years
  • 1513 Alonzo de Pineda explores gulf Coast of America (Florida area) and encounters Calusa Indians
  • 1524 Giovanni Verrazano discovers New York Bay
  • 1528 Panfilo de Narvaez conquers Cuba and explores Florida and Alvar Cabeza de Vaca explores Texas, Arizona and New Mexico
  • 1534 Jacques Cartier explores the Great Lakes and the the St. Lawrence River encountering the Native Americans of the region
  • 1539 Hernando de Soto explores south-eastern North America defeating resistance from Timucuan warriors, leading to the Napituca Massacre.
  • 1540 Francisco Vázquez de Coronado explores south-western North America and Mexico defeating Zuni Pueblo Indians. Later involved with fighting the Choctaws
  • 1541 Francisco Vásquez de Coronado explores Kansas and New Mexico which led to the Tiguex War
  • 1542 Cabrillo explores and discovers the Californian coast and the Californian Indians
  • 1559 Tristan de Luna explores North America
  • 1563 Francisco de Ibarra explores New Mexico
  • 1576 Sir Martin Frobisher explores Baffin Bay and the Hudson Strait
  • 1584 Philip Amadas and Arthur Barlowe (both in the service of Sir Walter Raleigh) explore the coast of North Carolina
  • 1585 Walter Raleigh receives the patent to explore and settle in North America. Walter Raleigh’s fleet of seven vessels under Richard Grenville and Ralph Lane, with 108 men, reach Roanoke Island and the Virginia colony of Roanoke Island established
  • 1598 Juan de Archuleta explores Colorado
  • 1607 Captain John Smith explorer and founder of Jamestown
  • 1609 Henry Hudson explores North eastern North America including the Hudson River
  • 1620 Pocahontas marries John Rolfe
  • 1614 The Mayflower arrived at Plymouth to found first colony in New England
  • 1622 1622-1624 The Powhatan Confederacy in Virginia between colonists and Native Indian Americans
  • 1622 First Indian uprising in an English colony (Virginia).
  • 1637 The First Reservations were established by Puritans near New Haven, Connecticut
  • 1638 The Pequot War – The Pequots were defeated by the colonists led by John Underhill and John Mason allied with the Narragansetts and Mohegans.
  • 1640 1640 – 1701 – The Beaver Wars, also known as the Iroquois Wars or the French and Iroquois Wars
  • 1655 1655 – The Peach Tree War, The Susquehannock Nation and allied Native Americans on ssettlements around New Amsterdam
  • 1675 1675 – 1677 King Philip’s War so named after Metacomet of the Wampanoag tribe, who was called Philip by the English.
  • 1680 1680-1692: The Pueblo Revolt occurred in New Mexico and Arizona between the Tuscarora Native Americans and the Spanish.
  • 1689 1689 – 1763 The French and Indian War between France and Great Britain for the lands in the New World. The Iroquois Indians were allied to the French and the Algoquian tribes were alliedt o the British
  • 1711 1711-1713: The Tuscarora War between the Tuscarora Native Americans and European settlers in Northern Carolina. The Tuscarora were defeated
  • 1715 The Yamasee War – The Yamasee against the white settlements in South Carolina
  • 1722 Iroquois surrender claims to land south of the Ohio River in addition to counties in the eastern panhandle
  • 1756 1756 – 1763: The Seven Years War (French and Indian War) due to disputes over land is won by Great Britain. France gives England all French territory east of the Mississippi River, except New Orleans. The Spanish give up east and west Florida to the English in return for Cuba.
  • 1763 Treaty of Paris ends French and Indian War (1754-1763)
  • 1764 Pontiac’s Rebellion in the Ohio River Valley. The Ottawa Chief Pontiac (1720-1769) led a rebellion against the British
  • 1774 December 16: The Boston Tea Party – Massachusetts patriots dressed as Mohawk Indians protest against the British Tea Act by dumping crates of tea into Boston Harbor.
  • 1775 Lord Dunmore’s War in Southern Ohio in which Lord Dunmore, the Governor of Virginia sent 3000 solders who defeated the 1000 Native Indians
  • 1776 Chickamauga Wars (1776-1794) Cherokee involvement in the American Revolutionary War and continuing through late 1794
  • 1785 Northwest Indian War (1785-1795) in Indiana and Ohio. The Americans suffered 2 humiliating defeats by the Native Indians until they won the Battle of Fallen Timbers
  • 1811 Tecumseh’s War – Battle of Tippecanoe (1811-1813). The Prophet, brother of Shawnee chief Tecumseh, attacked Indiana Territory but was defeated by the troops of William Henry Harrison
  • 1811 Creek War (1813-1814) erupted in Alabama and Georgia. The Creek Indians were defeated by American forces led by Andrew Jackson
  • 1813 Peoria War (1813) was conflict between the U. S. Army, settlers and the Native American tribes of the Potawatomi and the Kickapoo tribes in Illinois.
  • 1812 War of 1812 begins.
  • 1817 First Seminole War (1817-1818) erupted in Florida as the Seminole Indian tribe defended their lands and runaway slaves
  • 1827 Winnebago War (1827) in Wisconsin between the settlers and lead miners who were trespassing on their land and the Winnebago tribe.
  • 1832 Black Hawk War occurred in Northern Illinois and Southwestern Wisconsin by Sauk and Fox tribes led by Chief Black Hawk in an attempt to re-take their homeland
  • 1832 Department of Indian Affairs was established
  • 1835 *Creek Alabama Uprising (1835-1837) in Alabama and Georgia. It resulted in a defeat for the Creek forces and the removal of the Creek people from their native lands to the Indian Territory in present-day Oklahoma.*
  • 1835 Second Seminole War (1835-1842) in the Florida everglade area. Under Chief Osceola
  • 1837 Osage Indian War (1837) with the Osage Indians in Missouri.
  • 1838 The Cherokee were the last of the Five Civilised Tribes (Cherokee, Choctaw, Creek, Seminal and Chickasaw) to take the enforced march on the tragic Trail of Tears
  • 1849 1846 – 1863 The Navajo conflicts in New Mexico and Arizona
  • 1854 1854 – 1890 The Sioux Wars in South Dakota, Minnesota and Wyoming led by Crazy Horse and Sitting Bull
  • 1855 1855 – 1856 Rogue River War in Oregon. Indian tribes were attacked in an attempt to start a war that would enable unemployed miners to work. Survivors were forced on to reservations
  • 1855 Third Seminole War (1855-1858) in the Florida everglade area. The Seminole led by Chief Billy Bowleg made their last stand
  • 1862 U.S. Congress passes Homestead Act opening the Great Plains to settlers
  • 1861 1861 – 1900 Apache Wars in Arizona, New Mexico and Texas led by Geronimo and Cochise. Geronimo surrendered in 1886 but others carried on the fight until 1900
  • 1865 1865 – 1869 Building of Union Pacific Railroad brings settlers to the Great Plains
  • 1865 1865 1868 and in 1879: Ute Wars broke out in Utah due to Mormon settlers taking over their lands
  • 1872 1872 – 1873 Madoc War in California and Oregon led by Captain Jack
  • 1874 Red River War in Northern Texas against the Arapaho, Comanche, Cheyenne and Kiowa tribes,
  • 1876 Battle of the Rosebud in Montana. Lakota Sioux and Cheyenne under Crazy Horse cut off reinforcements intended to help Custer at the Battle of the Little Bighorn.
  • 1877 Nez Perce War in Oregon, Montana and Idaho led by Chief Joseph
  • 1887 Dawes General Allotment Act passed by Congress leads to the break up of the large Indian Reservations and the sale of Indian lands to white settlers
  • 1890 1890 The Wounded Knee Massacre in South Dakota. Chief Big Foot led the last stand of Sioux
  • 1907 Charles Curtis is the first American Indian elected to the U.S. Senate
  • 1924 President Calvin Coolidge singed the American Citizenship Act where by all Indians were declared citizens of U.S.
  • 1969 American Indian Movement (AIM)
  • 1979 American Indian Religious Freedom Act (Public Law 95-341 ) passed

* My genealogy ties to the Creek Tribe:

The famous people and events during the Native American History; the early cultures such as Woodland Clovis and Folsom Cultures; the impact of the Europeans; the Indian Wars and the famous battles, chiefs and leaders; events of significance in Native American History. For comprehensive facts and information about major events refer to the History of Native American Indians. -source:


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